Let’s start by making one thing clear: There are no animals
that “need” light in the way that photosynthetic organisms do. Only plants and
certain microbes are capable of performing photosynthesis (“photosynthetic”
corals and clams, don’t need light, their endosymbiotic dinoflagellates do).
So, no, copepods don’t absolutely require light for their
survival. However, that doesn’t mean that they can just “take it or leave it.”
Like so many animals, light (or its absence) plays a strong role in their
diurnal (i.e. day-to-day) and reproductive behavior. For example, though many
pods must venture into the shallow sunlit zones (where the algae are) to feed,
they only do so at night when they can more easily evade their predators.
During the day, these negatively phototactic (i.e. light-avoiding) species
retreat to the deep in oceanic habitats or hide in shadows in shallow nearshore
If copepods require lighting at all, whether in Nature or in
captive systems, it is for their nutritional health. While they eat a rather
wide variety of food items (even nutritionally poor material like detritus),
they require certain amounts of algae in their diet. This is because they
cannot synthesize important nutritional components (e.g. vitamin C and certain fatty
acids) and therefore must obtain them through the things they eat. Copepods
fulfill their daily needs for these substances by eating algae!
Algae, of course, requires light to survive. And most
aquaria (certainly reef aquaria) receive sufficient light to support algae
growth, both desired and undesirable. And because few aquarists maintain
aquaria without fish--which release copious nutrients such as ammonia and
phosphate--there is usually plenty of algae fertilizer around. Combining light
and fertilizer in the presence of algae only leads to algal blooms!
These blooms are bad for both the appearance and health of
the aquarium ecosystem. That is why aquarists so often employ copepods to
naturally control them. A population of aquarium pods can last so long as (1)
their planktonic larvae have plenty of phytoplankton to eat and (2) the adults
have plenty of benthic film algae to eat.
So, copepods can indeed survive without light, but they
nevertheless still require algae in their diet! Thus, if raised in total
darkness, copepods need to be fed a high-quality, nutritionally balanced,
algae-based diet such OceanMagik.